Leukemia refers to cancer of the blood cells. It occurs due to changes in the bone marrow characterized with uncontrollable growth of the blood cells. According to Leukemia & Lymphoma Society, peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs) comprise a diverse group of uncommon and aggressive diseases, in which the patients have cancerous T-cells. Key types of lymphocytic and myeloid leukemia in adults are classified as chronic and acute respectively. T-cell leukemia is a sub-type of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Chronic T-cell lymphocytic leukemia is further classified as large granular lymphocytic leukemia (LGLL), T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL), and adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL).
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LGLL is more common in women than in men possessing slow growth of T-cell leukemia. The cause of LGLL is not known although around 25% of people diagnosed with LGLL are also known to have suffered from rheumatoid arthritis. T-PLL, which is a destructive sub-type of CLL, is more common in elderly men, though it may develop in women also. It can also affect the skin. Based on its various features, ATLL can be classified into acute, chronic, smoldering, and adult T-cell lymphoma. The cause of this type of cancer is a retrovirus called human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV1). T-cell lymphocyte syndrome, known as Sezary syndrome, occurs in the skin. Usually, it shows sluggish growth with years to develop from mycosis fungoides present on the skin. Excessive night sweating, fatigue, weakness, unintentional weight loss, bone pain and tenderness, loss of appetite, fever, frequent infections, painless swollen lymph nodes, and red spots on the skin are a few symptoms of leukemia.
Most of the cancer types are staged into numbers to describe their extent in the body. This staging is based on the size and spread of the tumor. Unlike other types of cancer, leukemia is not staged. It is vital to understand in which organ (such as the liver, the lymph nodes, the spleen, the testicles, or the central nervous system) the leukemia cells have started accumulating. Out of all children diagnosed with ALL, around 205 children are identified with T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. This kind of cancer is more common in boys than girls. Also, it generally affects older children.
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The global T-cells leukemia market can be segmented based on diagnosis, type of therapy, pipeline assessment, and geography. Blood tests and biopsy are major diagnostic procedures to confirm the presence of leukemia. Some of the drugs under investigation include mogamulizumab, lenaldekar, and alemtuzumab. For years, chemotherapy, surgery, and radiation therapy have been treatments for cancer. Targeted therapies such as imatinib and trastuzumab are primarily in use and they have emerged as standard cancer treatments. T-cell immunotherapy for leukemia involves removal of the patient’s own immune T-cells from the blood and their genetic modification or reprogramming in a laboratory. This modification or reprogramming allows potential targeting and killing of the patient’s own cancerous cells. Geographically, the global T-cells leukemia market can be categorized into four major regions viz. North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, and Rest of World.
Key players operating in the global T-cells leukemia market are Angimmune LLC, BioCryst Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Celgene Corporation, GlaxoSmithKline plc, Kyowa Hakko Kirin, Otsuka Holdings Co., Ltd., Mundipharma International Limited, and Novartis AG. Various institutes and government centers involved in the research on treatment for T-cells leukemia include National Institute of Cancer; Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center; University of Washington; Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center; and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
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