Cuprous chloride is a precursor to the fungicide copper oxychloride. It is majorly used agriculture. Cuprous chloride is a white solid that is sparingly soluble in water. However, it is very soluble in concentrated hydrochloric acid. It burns a blue or blue or green flame. Cuprous chloride is used to control growth of plants. Other uses include creating blue flame displays, photography, electroplating baths, pigment for glass and ceramics, mordant in dyeing and printing fabrics. Copper chloride is prepared commercially by the action of chlorination of copper. It can also be generated by treatment of the hydroxide, oxide, or copper carbonate with hydrochloric acid. Electrolysis of aqueous sodium chloride with copper electrodes produces blue-green foam that can be collected and converted to hydrate. Copper chloride occurs naturally as a very rare mineral tolbachite and the dihydrate eriochalcite. Both are found near fumaroles. More common are mixed oxyhydroxide-chlorides like atacamite, arising among Cu ore beds oxidation zones in arid climate.
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Cuprous chloride is anhydrous in nature and has a distorted cadmium iodide structure. In this motif, the copper centers are octahedral. Most copper compounds exhibit distortions from idealized octahedral geometry due to the Jahn-Teller effect, which in this case describes the localization of one d-electron into a molecular orbital that is strongly antibonding with respect to a pair of chloride ligands
The surge in the usage of agrochemicals to protect the crops from insect and pest infestation is expected to drive the cuprous chloride market. The ever growing population coupled with diminishing arable land necessitates the use of agrochemicals to prevent spoilage of the food crops. The safety of farm output and the need to control the pilferage and spoilage of farm produce is the primary driver for the growth of cuprous chloride market. However, toxicity of cuprous chloride to human beings, through dermal route is a cause of concern for the cuprous chloride market. Cuprous chloride is classified as toxicity category for primary eye irritation, for acute oral toxicity, acute dermal allergies. Thus, the use of cuprous chloride as a fungicide is highly regulated in Europe and the U.S. Nonetheless, research and development in the field of biotechnology will enable new bio based variants of cuprous chloride to be introduced in the market; this is expected to open new areas of opportunity for the market of cuprous chloride.
The countries which use cuprous chloride are Brazil, Argentina, China and Russia among others. The use of cuprous chloride is therefore widespread in countries producing these crop plants, such as, Latin America, China and the Indian sub continent. New and improved variants of the cuprous chloride are introduced in the market from time to time in order to overcome fungal growth.
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Demand for use cuprous chloride was highest in North America due to the prevalence of a large genetically modified crops industry where use cuprous chloride is used for plant treatment purposes. Asia-Pacific is likely to witness the fastest growth during the forecast period where emerging countries such as China and India dominate the cuprous chloride industry due to the increasing awareness among the population generated by government support.
Some of the key players in the cuprous chloride market include Arkema, Hangzhou Chemfar Ltd, SAVA Global and Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc and SAS Group among others. This market is highly fragmented and has several small, medium and large players spread across all geographies.